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永嘉昆剧与海盐腔
发布日期:2013-05-28 发布者:admin  来 源:   点击次数:[1842]
 

                                           永嘉昆剧与海盐腔

                                                                                                   叶长海

 

                                                                                                      

 

 

  戏曲史家通常认为浙江温州(永嘉)是宋元南戏的故乡,在中国戏曲的起源形成和发展史上,温州有其特殊地位。南戏所演唱的“南曲”,其许多曲调来源于永嘉的地方民歌。初期南戏剧本也多为永嘉人所作。南戏在温州一带产生后,很快就传播到浙江各地及邻近的江苏、福建许多地区,并且出现了以这些地方为名的各种声腔,其中最早的是海盐腔。海盐腔滥觞于宋末而盛行于明代嘉隆以前,一度成为一切南唱的代表。昆山腔崛起以后,海盐腔仍在各地上演。浙江,在海盐腔肇兴时是南宋京都所在地,在海盐腔衰落时,许多州县却又早已回复僻处海隅的地位,因而“海盐浙腔”便在最偏僻的浙南、浙西等处保守流传至今。现在“永嘉昆腔”中称为“九搭头”的各类早期南曲曲牌,可能就是海盐腔的遗音。与“永嘉昆剧”相类似的,尚有浙西金华一带的义乌“草昆”、浙东台州一带的“黄岩昆”及浙东、浙西“三合班”里的一些早期南曲曲牌腔。永嘉昆剧的主要演出剧目是《琵琶记》、《荆钗记》、《白兔记》、《连环记》、《金印记》、《绣襦记》等元明南戏。其声调与“苏州昆班”不同而自成一个体系,其突出特点是质朴无华,明快粗犷,行腔的速度比苏州的“正统”昆曲快了一倍以上。从历史渊源来考察,我们认为这可能是海盐腔的遗响,其中有些音素甚至可能是宋元南戏在温州形成时的原始腔调。

 

 

关键词:昆曲 · 永嘉昆剧 · 海盐腔

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yongjia Kunju Opera and Haiyan Tunes

 

 

Ye Changhai

 

Department of Dramatic Literature, Shanghai Theatre Academy

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

 

Theatre historians generally consider Wenzhou city of Zhejiang Province to be the hometown of Nanxi (southern drama). Wenzhou holds a very special position in the history of Chinese traditional theatre, especially its original formation. The "Nan Melody" sung in Nanxi originated from the folk songs in Yongjia area. The Nanxi plays in the early days were written mostly by Yongjia people. After its appearance in Wenzhou, Nanxi quickly spread to other areas of Zhejiang Province and the neighboring Jiangsu and Fujian Provinces. Meanwhile a variety of tunes named after these places came into being, among which the Haiyan tunes appeared earliest. Being the representative of all of the Nanxi tunes, Haiyan tunes originated at the end of  Song Dynasty and were popular before the Jialong Period of the Ming Dynasty. When Kunshan tunes arose, Haiyan tunes were still performed in various areas. The capital of the South Song Dynasty was located in Zhejiang Province, where Haiyan tunes emerged. When Haiyan tunes were declining, the towns and the cities of the province returned to the state of being a remote corner of the country. It is for these reasons that the "Haiyan Zhejiang tunes" could be preserved in the most remote areas such as the southern and western parts of Zhejiang, and handed down till this day. A diversity of the early tune names of the Nan Melody, which was labeled as "Jiu Da Tou", might be the remaining music of the Haiyan tunes. Some other types of Kunju Operas, like Yiwu "Local Kun" of the Jinhua area in western Zhejiang, "Huangyan Kun" of Taizhou city in eastern Zhejiang and some early tune names of Nan Melody performed in "San He Troupe" in western Zhejiang, went through the same process as the Yongjia Kunju Opera.

Major performed plays of Yongjia Kunju Opera, such as Tale of Pipa (《琵琶记》), Tale of the Jing Hairpin (《荆钗记》), Tale of the White Rabbit (《白兔记》), Tale of a Series of Strategies (《连环记》), Tale of a Golden Seal (《金印记》) and Tale of the Embroidered Garment (《绣襦记》) are Nanxi of the Yuan Dynasty. Distinguished from the tunes of "Suzhou Kunju Troupe", Yonjia Kun Opera formed a system of its own with the conspicuous characteristics such as being simple and plain, sprightly and unconstrained, and the tune speed twice or three times faster than the orthodox Kunju Opera. After a study from the angle of historical sources, I believe this is the remaining influence of Haiyan tunes or even the primitive tunes of Nanxi formed in Wenzhou city in the Song and Yuan Dynasties.

 

 

Key words: Kunju Opera, Yongjia Kunju Opera, Haiyan tunes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
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